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Time Team Special 41 (2011) - Wars of the Roses (Bosworth, Leicestershire)

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No copyright infringement has been intended by the uploading of this video; I am simply trying to share this amazingly interesting series.
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Text Comments (158)
James Milligan (17 days ago)
Great video. But I am not at all convinced that cannons had any great role to play in the ultimate victory of Henry. I think that they were good for a fright, but not much else. I just cannot see the cannon of the time having any great killing capacity, and I still think that hand-to-hand combat was the determinate factor.
Nick Garcia (1 month ago)
I think the cube inside the cannonball might be for added strength. Lead is really soft after all and deforms easily or possibly a crude attempt at a fragmentation shoot.
theoldar (2 months ago)
Where are the arrowheads?
Christian Patriot (3 months ago)
It's unbelievable that a country that could fight itself as savagely as the English have over their history could ever have become united.
Claudeus Gothicus (3 months ago)
Christian Patriot - Not surprising really, many countries have experienced civil wars throughout history.
Linda Doggett (5 months ago)
How in the world did they dispose of 30,000 bodies? There would not have been a way to identify the dead, I guess if Bob didn't come home from the battle, you just expected the worst. Mind is boggled.
Graphic Jack (5 months ago)
Philippa Gregory “What I find remarkable is these people come here in all seriousness to reenact with historical accuracy” she finds this remarkable because she herself never cares about historical accuracy... lol
charles b (5 months ago)
standing off to the side like maybe 45 deg from firing line of a cannon being fired at the ground isn't too smart..doesnt take much but a rock in the field to make it take off in a direction you may not like..the momentum despite its weight from this style projectile just isn't enough for me to be so gutsy..that said the lbs per sq inch such an object has must be way up there..
Westminster Covenanter (7 months ago)
I'm usually more interested in the political, economic, and social causes and effects of wars, and not so much in the battles themselves. This documentary, however, was totally fascinating to me!
Matthew (7 months ago)
Where have the jean shorts gone?
T.J. Payeur (7 months ago)
9:30..that's a broken trailer hitch ball...
Weedus (8 months ago)
Thats the most useless description of a rifled barrel i ever heard... 23:50
Where is the historical part of the Chevalier du Temple * Luc de la Rose * The french origin of the Rose -Shield and name ( The White Rose )??? He fighted and won the Battle France against Britain 1335 in Avignon . His ancestry line and members are leading you to the time of the french cathars.
Robert Healy (9 months ago)
Appreciate. Having trouble find late series . love it. Massachuchetts USA
J.A. Stafford (10 months ago)
My only quibble is the 'Henry and his bodyguard troops...had become separated from the main body of their army' part. They didn't become separated. Henry was in hiding far from the army. He never fought man-to-man for the crown. He let others do it for him.
filigree (1 year ago)
Why was this show cancelled
Susan Simpson (1 year ago)
Too much info on guns and ammo.  I want to hear more about Henry and Richard.
Atoool K (1 year ago)
Tony was in black adder, which was basically about this battle
Ricardo Jaye (11 months ago)
Oi that's my horse!
Russ Kenny (1 year ago)
This has nothing to do with Bosworth, a quick mention in the first few minutes...what a wash out :(
Russ Kenny (1 year ago)
I live in a village near Market Bosworth and went for a walk around the battle field yesterday...it's Spring and a lovely time of year to walk it
Suraj Bajwa (1 year ago)
Tim Parker (1 year ago)
Just identified the location on the OS map, and I was intrigued to see that close by the position identified in the programme for Richard's army is marked "White Moors". Possibly no coincidence.
Michael Fox (1 year ago)
Lord Stanley was a bad  bad  bad man
Sam Dix (1 year ago)
The part where they are firing cannon balls across the field at around 35 minutes is literally a 30 second walk from my house!
boogers (1 year ago)
they didn't think about the iron n rock inside the lead cannon ball helping to penetrate better.. lead squishes on impact. a square piece of rock of iron however provides hard sharp points and the hardness needed to penetrate
dennisjk76 (1 year ago)
this one dude laughing all the time is almost making me turn off this otherwise OK battlefield documentary, aaand, its not about explaining the War of the Roses :-/
Sir Curtis Seretse (1 year ago)
Battle of Towton. I have forgotten whether it is 200 or 300. Let us say 200. I have read that the Yorkists had 200(?) Flemish handgunners at Towton. They only managed a couple of shots an hour, and caused as many casualties to themselves owing to misfires as they did to the enemy. I read about the Flemings at Towton and their handguns around 1970. In 2010 some fragments of a handgun that had blown up were found at Towton field. And everybody was saying: "Ooh! I didn't know there were hanguns being used in 1461." So much for "experts". It is highly likely that artillery were used at Towton. By the look of that fragment in the video, at least one canon blew up.
Daniel Ellis (1 year ago)
Richard III was found in a car park, so does that mean that this video is irrelevant?
Rohitava Banerjee (1 year ago)
He was buried at a location (which would one day become the car park) after the battle, not necessary that they would bury him at the battlefield. They desecrated Richard's body and had it carried naked on a mule to the place they buried him so everyone along the way could see the dead and deformed King in his defeat, this means the body was transported from the battlefield.
diana blount (1 year ago)
that Phil Harding is a cool dude for real. Wish I had some of his energy
Christian Patriot (3 months ago)
I wish I knew what Dickens novel he's from.
GildaLee27 (2 years ago)
Time Team fans: We are circulating this petition asking Channel4 to produce a one-off dig in memory of the great Mick Aston: https://www.change.org/p/channel-4-to-commission-a-special-one-off-dig-in-memory-of-mick-aston At least one TT archaeologist has indicated her enthusiastic support for this effort. Please sign & share. Thanks, Time Team fans!
rothstein zetoun (2 years ago)
what do they teach us at school for real??????????
Janice Trethewey (2 years ago)
I am a direct descendant of Ralph Neville & Joan Beaufort, Richard Neville & Alice Montecute, and Thomas Grey (hence Elizabeth Woodville) & Cecily Bonville......etc 14 or so families ago......wow....just quite addicted to finding out what the rellies got up to 500 years ago.....great stuuf!
Richard Broughan (6 months ago)
Vieuxpont and Westmorland here, my family left everything to the Templars and fled to Ireland. I wonder what would have happened if Buckingham hadn't betrayed Richard?
Janice Trethewey (1 year ago)
I guess we wouldn't be here where we are now if anything was different through all those years....we are here now because all that did happen.....fascinating.
Michael Fox (1 year ago)
I'm from the William 1066 to Plantagenet male  line until King Edward I 1307 and wonder how it would have turned out if they killed  Margaret Beaufort
Elenna Pointer (2 years ago)
My old Sealed Knot chum Glenn Foard! PIckering's ensign dude :D
Lingua tONICA (2 years ago)
were the Stanley brothers French or Italian? Just joking,do not get excited over WWII
Edgar1952 (2 years ago)
The title is misleading, the documentation is not about the war of the roses, it`is about little boys fascination with guns, embarassing.
Edgar1952 (2 years ago)
+Johannes Liechtenauer May be, but the title of this episode is "Wars of the Roses" I don`t think the leadshot is that important for the history of this war.
Johannes Liechtenauer (2 years ago)
+Edgar1952 So the finding of leadshot as archaeological evidence from the "actual" battlefield as opposed to where it's currently thought to be is "little boys fascination with guns, embarassing" to you?
jordan Cole (2 years ago)
A bit of orange spray paint would have made finding those cannon balls a lot easier.
Long Haired Dude (2 years ago)
And this is why I stopped watching the show. It became more of a history documentary rather than hands on dig and find.
Lamees Ahmad (8 months ago)
If you don't want the whole historical story just watch The Time Team three day digs. The Time Team Specials go much further into a subject or area uncovered by the archaeology. I understand that full historical information is not everyone's cup of tea. But if like me you have a passion for history and archaeology you will find that (although I absolutely love them) the three day digs only reveal a smidgen of the information. I find the Time Team Specials give me closure about areas that the Time team have flagged as rich archaeological sites worthy of further investigation. I am very pleased that these areas are further excavated to reveal more facts before they are destroyed by further development. I really loved the episode 'Time Team Special 40 (2010- The Real Vikings'. Did you watch it? It was far more interesting than this one with lots of digging, excavations and finds. Maybe that episode is more to your taste and genre. Best wishes.
Grizzly Country (1 year ago)
So education is horrible?
Katherine No Name (2 years ago)
What's the point of digging and finding, if you don't understand the context of the archaeology?
Anya Ovseenko (2 years ago)
Lord Stanley was married to Margaret Beaufort, Henry Tudors' mother. I wish the documentary had mentioned that important piece.
Susan Simpson (1 year ago)
fartunique, I beg to differ with you.  Henry VII would not have won the battle without the defection of Lord Stanley and his brother.  Time Team make many insignificant statements about all manner of topics, but this one statement would've been very informative and significant.  Richard III was very naïve to retain Lord Stanley in his cabinet, knowing full well he was married to the mother of Henry VII.
sprezzatura (1 year ago)
+Rohit Banerjee that's an interesting point - personally, I think Lord Stanley is a pretty intriguing character in the Bosworth encounter - his influence was certainly pivotal, so I think his motivations in the battle are definitely relevant!
Rohitava Banerjee (1 year ago)
My point is Henry Tudor's lineage was sketchy to say the least and there is a high chance that Lord Stanley was aware of this sketchiness .
Rohitava Banerjee (1 year ago)
Henry Tudor had claim to the throne from his mother's side, not his father's(Edmund Tudor). Henry's paternal grandfather was a chamber servant (Owen Tudor) who married Catherine de Valois (Widow of Henry V), there were rumors that her son Edmund was the bastard of Edmund Beaufort. There is a chance that Margaret Beaufort actually married her cousin Edmund(possibly cousin), as he could have been the son of Edmund Beaufort(brother of John Beaufort who was the father of Margaret Beaufort). This would actually make Henry more legitimate for Royal Lineage than being the son of Owen Tudor. Henry VII actually had the least right to the throne than anybody in the Wars if Owen is his father as history is written, he was very close to being considered a usurper due to his lack of royal blood. I agree Margaret's first marriage to Thomas Stanley is a legitimate addition that should be made, he was considered by many to be a King-maker.
sprezzatura (1 year ago)
+fartunique I don't think so - knowing why Stanley might have had a motivation to side with Henry is helpful... Having gotten degrees in both history and archaeology, I think that's what's interesting about medieval archaeology, that knowledge of both history and archaeology is useful.
John Lord (2 years ago)
The actual truthg of the War of the Roses, is an inter-dynastic faith fight. The Lancastrians (of my FitzAlan, Earls of Arundel ancestry) celtic church, versus the Yorkist English anglican catholics (from the days of bad King John [and earlier] and all his catholic adventures were shoved back in his face by the Magna Carta Barons ...)..... This is the real truth of religious internicene warfare, assaulted abbeys, monasteries, demanses, lands, manor houses, ... and each side giving as good as they got fed back to them.... But the Fg catholic anglicans (as always) started these raids of lands, money, serfs, tenures, and economic strangleholds. One of the final death advents was with Henry closing down and confiscating all lands, monies, of the abbeys and monasteries of those not English catholic anglicans .... And you wonder why the Pilgrims (true celtic christians) and the Puritans (cleanse up the English church came to the State-colonies) ....
Ami Johnson (1 year ago)
First of all, the Celtics were originally Pagans. Both the Lancastrians and the Yorkists were Catholic, and certainly no one was yet Puritan. All followed the 'Church' teachings, made vows on the host, and attended Mass multiple times a day, as well as celebrating all Holy Days as dictated by the Church. This was a dynastic war that stemmed from over mighty subjects and a weak king unable to control his nobles. Religion had nothing to do with it. It's true that the Lollard movement got a foothold during the reign of a Richard II, but Henry IV and V did much to quell this. Religious deviation didn't again become a serious issue until Henry VIII made it one during the Reformation and dissolution of the Monasteries. This continued until the Puritans/Quakers/non-Anglicans eventually left when they realised they would never have a voice as the majority of the nobility only wanted minor reform from the Catholic Church, or in the case of the Dukes of Norfolk, chose to remain Catholic. But the dynastic battles that came to be known as the Wars of the Roses had nothing to do with religion, and everything to do with power and prominence, and each noble chose the side that they felt could best further their own ambition.
Itsaboutthewaterlife (2 years ago)
Good take.
Kevin Roche (2 years ago)
I can think of three possible reasons for the wonky cube in the core of the cannon balls, and that just while watching the film:1- it would prevent the core from sinking to the bottom of the mould when filling with lead (unlike a round core),2- it might impart rotation, and hence improve accuracy (the cannon barrels are not rifled), and 3- it might help prevent complete distortion of the lead ball in the barrel (or even just after leaving the barrel, or after hitting the first target). Distortion in the barrel would make it explode and distortion out of the barrel could lower its effectiveness in harming multiple targets.Did they ever sort out the reasons I wonder?
Ser Garlan Tyrell (4 months ago)
Cost could be my best guess. Also having the soft metal on the outside would mean it ran through the gun more easily, and not likely to damage it.
Christian Buczko (7 months ago)
Lead was expensive, difficult to produce ect, making tens of thousands of balls of solid lead wouldn't have been easy because of the lack of material. Adding something comparably cheap enabled them to make far more. Don't forget they'd been fighting 30odd years by that point, and as with the second world war, those materials would have been in high demand. Using cheap stone or even iron would reduce the amount of lead required without affecting performance that much, and they could therefore produce far more ammo quickly.
Ted Timmis (1 year ago)
Kevin Roche Your points are very good.
zettle 234 (1 year ago)
A round ball that spins, will curve in it's flight. It won't add to the accuracy.
Tew Dogs (2 years ago)
just look at our modern steel core ammo that the military, world wide uses.i think the answer is there. :)
Mike Rotella (2 years ago)
They should have totally shot that nasty ass sweat-stained hat with a big ass canon. That thing is repulsive.
Tony Oliver (2 years ago)
6:13 they were most certainly not super heroes otherwise every battle would have been a draw of would have gone on for hours. These were only people although very strong and fit, they weren't like Hercules or Conan.
The Menagerie (1 year ago)
Tony Oliver Dr. Toby Capwell is just using the term to describe what extraordinary soldiers they were, he is describing them as uniquely effective and significant in combat. It certainly takes a special kind of person to be amongst the best of knights.
Rocka Craig (2 years ago)
+Tony Oliver I see. Having said that I thought they were talking with a perspective of the period. However the sterotype probably had a hand.
Tony Oliver (2 years ago)
+Rocka Craig This is true, certain people were looked up at as great idols of inspiration. But I was more suggesting a point towards a modern stereotype that tells all sorts of things about historic people that weren't true.
Rocka Craig (2 years ago)
Not by our standards but back then they didn't have Batman or Superman and they all believed in the divinity of the monarchy and some pretty incredible stories pop up about them. Besides at the time knights were the elite warriors and only other knights were seen as a match. For them two knights fighting would be what a clash between any two comic book superheroes is for us.
jme da pantz (2 years ago)
I wanna see footage of all the profs and volunteers getting heads and legs blasted off and THEN give a lecture about 'finding' cannonballs..
jme da pantz (2 years ago)
damn lot of sampled random screams... WAAAA! ARRRRGH! EEEEEEE!! etc makes it seem amateurish
alijud (2 years ago)
The re-enactment is carried out by enthusiastic amateurs. They make their own costumes and give up their time for this they are not paid actors
Gus Ensor (2 years ago)
why are they standing in front of a fire arm!
Lingua tONICA (2 years ago)
+Gus Ensor the farmer of the real site collected the cannonballs and spread them 2 miles away, so the bloody archeologists would leave him alone for harvest and stuff . When they found it out ,decided to commit suicide (grin)
kennashan (3 years ago)
I love this episode! I'm deep into studying this time period, the politics and the shifting alliances fascinate me.
Thomas Cervasio (3 years ago)
... Looks pretty much like the ball half of a ball & socket towing hitch. The ball's flange is (more or less!) welded to the towing vehicle's back bumper hookup mount. This was probably part of some farmer's bad day plowing ... 8:58
Steve17010 (3 years ago)
"Makes the hair on the back of your spine tingle."  Talk about mixed metaphors.
torerson (3 years ago)
Robinson is a helluva good presenter, his comic characters and personal appearance irrelevant..
Pål H. Bakka (3 years ago)
The first cannonballs were apparently river pebbles or shaped stones. Coating them with lead would create shot of uniform size that fit more tightly into the barrels, thus increasing the velocity of the shot.
Lloyd Willey (11 months ago)
The "claws" mentioned above is for classical guitar, not slovenliness
Rocky Mountain Hobo (1 year ago)
And the life of very expensive cannon. With iron barrels. Stones or even iron shot would destroy those barrels quickly. Also along with the size you mentioned. the lead would create a better seal as the lead contorts to fit the barrel.
Brent Arnold (3 years ago)
Very interesting! They should move the flag there!
INF1D3L010 (3 years ago)
Those reenactors are absolutely pathetic. Glorifying something as horrifying as Medieval warfare is about akin to glorifying the Nazis, the Bolsheviks or the Khmer Rouge. Never mind that chivalry is a myth, and they didn't have anything resembling the Geneva Conventions, nor did they have any sensible laws. I don't care which ruler you pick from that time period. They all would have had you impaled on an unsharpened, greased up pole up your ass for so much as looking at them. And they wouldn't even blink. Medieval rulers, as a rule, did not look at genocide unfavourably. The only reason why it never happened that way is they didn't have the capability to kill that many people. If they did, you bet your ass they would have tried it.
MegaDoug4 (3 years ago)
Honestly, Phil, trim those claws mate.
Susan Simpson (1 year ago)
everywhere, I've noticed in every single Time Team video, at least one, or more, viewer comments on Phil's fingernail.  Usually some other viewer will call them out as an imbecile because that fact was unbeknownst to them.
Everywhere2 (2 years ago)
+MegaDoug4 - Never. He plays guitar with those claws.
Rory Tolmie (3 years ago)
Is it just me, or does Tony Robinson look like a hybrid man-chicken?
leslie easton (9 months ago)
It's just you!
Rory Tolmie (2 years ago)
MUAHAHA! All my theories are confirmed now, I just have to prove Dumbledore is really Mick! Help? Lol.
Lingua tONICA (2 years ago)
+Rory Tolmie ,after a complicated research of his family's genealogy, and the magnetic scanning of his profile, we could place among his ancestors the Earl of Woodstock,the yellow feathery companion of Snoopy.
MegaDoug4 (3 years ago)
+Michael S I love this show, I think Tony adds to it though. I don't know if it's because I constantly think of his Baldric character or not.
Michael S (3 years ago)
My wife is convinced he's a Muppet.
2serveand2protect (3 years ago)
I maybe wouldn't like to see the mouth of that so-called "cannon" look at you, but - I would CERTAINLY NOT LIKE to BE ANYWHERE NEAR THAT WHEN IT FIRES!... That "thing" is probably more dangerous to those who fire it, than than to those who charge such "artillery" positions...
Sir Curtis Seretse (1 year ago)
+2serveand2protect >I would CERTAINLY NOT LIKE to BE ANYWHERE NEAR THAT WHEN IT FIRES!...< Neither would I. One of the best known death by misadventure cases with these things was James II, king of Scots. He was showing off his ordnance, when the gun be was standing next to blew up. That was the start of James III's reign.
wrnchhead (3 years ago)
Reminds me of a line from Henry V "Behold the ordnance on their carriages, with fatal mouths gaping on girded Harfleur."
Andreas Hansen (4 years ago)
Heh.. 17:06 That *really* seems like a dumb idea for a number of reasons. :)
For me, Castle La Corona de los Santos in Santa Cruz de Leon Cortes, Costa Rica
rsw68 (4 years ago)
Very nice. 
Keyser94 (4 years ago)
When I was a kid I always wonder why it was called War of the Roses, and I confuse it with the 100 years war, and why Henry VIII always end being mentioned, I always ask myself when I was kid. Why it was called War of the Roses? Now it seems so simple.
Kevin Gee (6 months ago)
Keyser94 but you still have it wrong....it's WARS OF THE ROSES..plural on the wars.
Kevin Gee (6 months ago)
Keyser94 but you still have it wrong....it's WARS OF THE ROSES..plural on the wars.
Rory Tolmie (3 years ago)
And still it doesn't contradict my original assessment. No worries, that isn't an insult. What makes KP so lovable is the fact he IS innocent. Cheers!
Keyser94 (3 years ago)
+Rory Tolmie Hey, that was honest childish naivety. 
Rory Tolmie (3 years ago)
Karl Pilkington. :) 
Keyser94 (4 years ago)
Philipa "I don't known nothing about real history" Gregory.
VC YT (5 months ago)
...thus soon to be america's next education secretary.
mayailiana53 (3 years ago)
Lol...I think she does know her history. ...she just chooses to ignore it, which in my opinion is unforgivable.
Dylan McCaffrey (4 years ago)
ty for the upload love to watch anything on the Wars of the roses
bisquitnspanky (4 years ago)
Last to be killed in battle, but not the last King of England to lead troops in battle. 
The Phantom (1 year ago)
Last English King to be killed in Battle, but not the last English King.
Blood Raven (3 years ago)
+bisquitnspanky George II
wrnchhead (4 years ago)
15:39 Phil's best line is my favorite of the series, "What we musn't lose sight of is these are three human beings. Three human beings that died a terrible death on a medieval battlefield."
Gavin MacNeish (6 months ago)
Phil was born in Nonenttity in the West country and after serving with Soloman Kane took to Archaeology, but mainly to find Soloman' missing treasure
Gavin MacNeish (6 months ago)
A replica sword as opposed to a real one? I have worked with reenactors and some of the swords they use in fun are not what they collect . I'm not sure what you're point is?
Gavin MacNeish (6 months ago)
I'm Scottish and Stonehenge is in Wiltshire. Check a map, it's only 400 miles difference. American are we by any sort of chance?
WashuHakubi4 (1 year ago)
"Is my hat safe?"
caveymoley (2 years ago)
+Itsaboutthewaterlife agreed  
Anon Nymous (4 years ago)
Thanks for all the uploads! In the States, we don't get to see quality programs like this.
Thomas Hockin (4 years ago)
C - 14 still does not work guys!!!
Johannes Liechtenauer (2 years ago)
+Thomas Hockin Care to explain why?
offamychain (4 years ago)
Huh? Yes it does, very well, if you are using Scientific Method. If you are using other methods to date, well, dunno what to tell you.
TheElderScrollsKing (4 years ago)
I love the middle ages! <3
hazbiggun (4 years ago)
Poor Richard :( . I despise the Tudors.
Graphic Jack (5 months ago)
Richard almost certainly murdered his nephews. No one else had a motive for doing so, nor the means. Richard apologists are ridiculous.
Daniel Ellis (1 year ago)
hazbiggun same
Martin Kilner (4 years ago)
love it!
Greg B (5 years ago)
In light of the recent finding of Richard's corpse, this episode is particularly relevant. A monument to him ought to be raised on this site.
foojuice101 (5 years ago)
Baldrick? I thought you turned up late to Bosworth! ;) Fantastic documentary btw
MonkeyspankO (5 years ago)
Its amazing that TT does genuine archaeology...not just digging up some minor site, but truly historic sites like this. GJ!
il segrete vb bob
Nahojishere (5 years ago)
Thanks, just love Time Team :)
crinoid1919 (5 years ago)
Wait..wait..what? Oh a shipload of cannon 20:41
525Lines (5 years ago)
Their civil war reenactors aren't nearly as fat as ours.
Robbie Battam (5 years ago)
lol at the screaming pain noise they re-use ARHHHARHHHH hahahha.
Zoe Jolly (5 years ago)
Thanks for all these video's they are marvellous... really appreciate all the time taken to upload them Cheers :)

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